Ice cream

Ice cream

Ice cream is the type of food that is enjoyed by both children and adults alike. When it comes to defining what ice cream really is, it is known around the world as a frozen food that is sweetened and eaten as either a dessert or a snack. It is prepared either with cream or dairy milk. Then some form of sweetener is added, such as sugar or even an alternate. Also, a spice is added to give it flavor, such as vanilla or cacao. Plus, stabilizers and at times coloring is also added. After the addition of each ingredient, everything is mixed together and placed in a freezing enclosure in order to avoid the formation of ice crystals. This results in a semi-solid and smooth foam, which turns completely solid at extremely low temperatures, like below 35 °F or 2 °C. As the temperature rises, the ice cream becomes softer.

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The word ‘ice cream’ comes in different versions all around the world. Moreover, ice cream is available in a variety of different styles, such as frozen yogurt, frozen custard, gelato, sorbet, and many others. In certain countries, like the U.S., the word ‘ice cream’ is applicable only for a certain variety; hence, majority of the governments controls the use of a lot of the terms, commercially. It depends on the main ingredients’ quantities, especially the cream’s quantity. The products that are not according to the criteria cannot be labelled as ‘ice cream’; hence, they are labelled as ‘frozen dairy desserts’ instead. On the other hand, in countries like Argentina or Italy, the same word is used to describe all varieties of ice creams. Furthermore, there are dairy alternative for lactose intolerant people and people who are allergic to the dairy protein. There are options available for vegans as well. These ice creams are usually made with sheep or goat’s milk, or other milk substitutes, like coconut, cashew, soy, tofu, or almond milk.

Ice cream is served in numerous ways. One can either lick it from an edible cone or eat it using a spoon. Plus, at times ice cream is also eaten with other different desserts, like a brownie or an apple pie. It can also be utilized as an important ingredient in other eating items, such as sundaes, ice cream floats, ice cream cakes, milkshakes and baked foods like Baked Alaska.   

The Worldwide History Of Ice cream

  • Iran (Persia)

It was probably around 500 BC, when a version of ice cream was introduced into this world during the Achaemenid Empire in Iran (Persia). Over there, ice was mixed with different flavors in order to make a treat for the summertime. Furthermore, it was 400 BC when the Persians came up with a unique chilled food item that was made with vermicelli and rose water, and it was served to the royalty during the summers. In it, numerous fruits, saffron, and different other flavors were mixed with ice. Bastani sonnati is another famous ice cream from Persia.

  • Ancient Greece

Throughout 500 BC, people in ancient Greece would eat fruits and honey mixed with snow whenever they visited the markets in Athens. In fact, Hippocrates was the one who urged his patients in ancient Greece to consume ice, since it energizes the juices of life and makes one happy.

  • China

During 200 BC in China, a blend of rice and milk was frozen and used. A combination of saltpeter and snow was poured over a syrup-filled container’s exterior in order to lower its freezing point below zero. The use of salt helps in lowering the freezing point faster, just as it helps in raising the water’s boiling point.

  • Rome

Nero, the Roman Emperor, would have mountain ice brought to him. The ice will be used to create cold delicacies that were mixed with toppings of fruits.

  • South Asia

During the 16th century, Mughal emperors of Persia, used horsemen of the Indian subcontinent to get them ice that was from Hindu Kush all the way to Delhi. That ice was then used to create fruit sorbets. Furthermore, another well-known frozen dairy sweet of the Indian Subcontinent, Qulfi, is considered South Asia’s traditional ice cream. Qulfi was first made during the time of the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. Also, this dessert was inspired from another ice cream of Persia known as bastani sonnati.

  • Europe

During the 16th century, it was Catherine de’ Medici, the Italian duchess, who brought with her the ice cream dessert to France. It was 1533, when she got married to Henry II, who was the Duke of Orléans in France. With her, she brought a couple of Italian chefs that were experts in making flavored sorbets and ice. After a century in England, Charles I was fascinated by this ice cream and he ended up offering his personal ice cream chef a pension for a lifetime as long as he kept the formula a secret. He only wanted the royals to experience the delights of ice cream. These legends appeared in the nineteenth century; however, there is no evidence in history that supports these claims.

Furthermore, it was Nicholas Lemery, who published the first-ever French recipe for flavored ices in 1674. Plus, in 1694, recipe of sorbetti was published in a book by Antonio Latini called ‘The Modern Steward.’ Moreover, from 1692, recipes of different flavored ices started appearing in publications by François Massialot. However, his recipes resulted in a pebbly and coarse texture. While Antonio Latini stated that the end result of the recipe he published will give a smooth consistency of snow and sugar.

In England, a recipe for ice cream was first published during the eighteenth century. It was 1718 in London, when an ice cream’s recipe appeared in a cookbook called Mrs. Mary Eales’s Receipts. In 1751, a cookbook by Hannah Glasse called ‘The Art of Cookery made Plain and Easy’ also included an ice cream recipe. Then in 1768, M. Emy wrote a cookbook that was all about ice cream and flavored ice recipes.

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  • North America

It was 1744, when ice cream was referenced in North America for the first time. Ice cream in the U.S. was introduced by Quaker colonists and they brought with them their recipes of ice creams. During the colonial era, cities like New York and others, consisted of shops where confectioners would sell the ice cream. George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Ben Franklin were fond of eating and serving ice cream. In New York in the year 1790, a merchant who was from Catham street, kept a record that stated that George Washington spent about $200 on just ice cream alone during the summer. Plus, these records also showed that Thomas Jefferson had an ice cream recipe consisting of eighteen steps. In 1813, the wife of President James Madison, Dolley Madison, served their guests ice cream during the Inaugural Ball.

Furthermore, the 1840s were the time when hand-cranked and small-scale freezers for ice cream were manufactured by Agnes Marshall in England and Nancy Johnson in America. According to consumer surveys, chocolate and vanilla were the most popular flavors among the people of North America.

Popularity Of Ice Cream

In the middle of the 18th century, ordinary folks were able to eat ice cream in the Mediterranean. Soon enough, it became economical and popular for the people of England. This was due to the presence of an ice cream stand near the Charing Cross station that was set up by Carlo Gatti, a Swiss native, in 1851. He would sell scoops of ice creams in a shell for a single penny. Before all this, ice cream was known as an expensive dessert that was only accessible to people who had an ice house. Gatti ended up building a well of ice where he could store the ice he got from the Regent’s Canal due to his contract that he was under with the canal company. His businesses expanded by 1860 and he started bringing in a large quantity of ice from Norway.

Furthermore, Agnes Marshall was known as England’s ‘queen of the ices’ and she worked hard when it came to popularizing recipes of ice creams. She wanted the consumption of ice cream to become a fashionable pursuit for the middle-class. She was the author of four books. They were called ‘Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Book of Cookery’ in 1888, ‘Ices Plain and Fancy: The Book of Ices’ in 1885, ‘Fancy Ices’ in 1894, and ‘Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Larger Cookery Book of Extra Recipes’ in 1891. Also, she gave lectures to the public about cooking and actually recommended the use of liquid nitrogen for making ice cream.

In the 1870s, the invention of ice cream soda added to its popularity. This dessert was claimed to be invented in 1874 by Robert Green. It was the late nineteenth century when a sundae made from ice cream was originated. Numerous men came forward claiming that they were the first ones to invent the sundae, but there wasn’t any strong evidence that supported their stories. According to certain sources, the invention of the sundae took place in order to get around the blue laws that did not permit the serving of sodas on a Sunday. The towns that are declaring to be the ones where the sundae was invented for the first time includes Evanston, Two Rivers, Buffalo, and Ithaca. It was the early twentieth century, when the banana split and the ice cream cone gained popularity.

The cone for the ice cream was first mentioned in ‘Mrs. A.B. Marshall’s Book of Cookery’ in 1888. In her book, she had a recipe called ‘Cornet with Cream’, where she mentioned that these cornets were baked inside an oven and almonds were used to make them. An ice cream cone officially gained popularity in the United States when it was seen at the World’s Fair in 1904 that was held in Missouri.

The twentieth century was the time in history where the world of ice cream saw a massive shift in its popularity and availability. In U.S., places like a soda shop, ice cream parlor, or a soda fountain served an ice cream soda as a popular dessert. In a way, the soda fountain replaced places like saloons and bars during the time of the American Prohibition.

Moreover, the twentieth century’s latter half saw an increase in the worldwide popularity of ice cream once cheap refrigeration was commonly used by everyone. The numbers of ice cream types, flavors, and even stores increased massively. All of the ice cream vendors would usually compete on the variety of ice creams they offered. For instance, the restaurants of Howard Johnson claimed to sell 28 different flavors.  Baskin-Robbins went ahead and introduced 31 flavors, having one flavor for each day of a month. Plus, they claim to have created more than a thousand different varieties so far.

Furthermore, another great development that was seen in the world of ice cream was the invention of the soft ice cream. This type of ice cream had a lot more air in it; hence, it also reduced costs. This ice cream would come out from a tap or spigot of a machine on to a dish or a cone. Ice cream chains like Carvel, Tastee-Freez, and Dairy Queen increased the popularity of the soft-serve ice cream in the U.S. Later on, Baskin-Robbins also jumped on the soft-serve bandwagon and added this option to their menu.

These technological inventions resulted in the addition of several food additives in the ice cream, for instance gluten that is known as a stabilizing agent. However, some people are allergic to gluten. Hence, this has recently created awareness for this issue, which has encouraged various brands to start creating ice cream that is gluten-free.

Moreover, in the 1980s, ice cream of thicker consistency came in the market and was labeled as being super-premium or premium. These varieties were seen in brands like   Chocolate Shoppe Ice Cream Company, Häagen-Dazs, and Ben & Jerry’s.

The Composition Of Ice cream

Ice cream is created through a process of emulsion that is converted into foam once air cells are added in it and they are frozen in order to create ice cells. Ice crystals are important when it comes to the ice cream’s composition because they give the required mouth feel. Usually, an ice cream is made up of ice, water, milk protein, milkfat, air, and sugar. Fat and water create an emulsion; hence, they have the most proportions due to their weight. The fat consists of triacylglycerols that are non-polar; therefore, they will stick to themselves because of the Van der Waals interactions. On the other hand, water is known to be polar, so for fat dispersion emulsifiers are required. Moreover, due to the ice cream foam’s colloidal phase, the texture stays light.

Furthermore, milk proteins, like whey protein and casein, in an ice cream have amphiphilic properties. Hence, they are able to absorb water, which results in the formation of micelles that help with the consistency. A disaccharide called Sucrose is used in the form of a sweetening agent. A sugar in milk called Lactose will cause a decline in the freezing point. Therefore, once it is frozen, its texture will not be hard. 

The Production Of Ice cream


Prior to the advancement in modern refrigeration, it was only during special occasions when ice cream was served as a luxury. This was due to all the effort that went into making the ice cream. During winter, ice was taken from ponds and lakes and was stored inside holes that were created on the ground. Other places the ice was stored in were ice houses made of bricks or wood-frame. Moreover, various plantation owners and farmer, including United States presidents Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, would store ice during the winter months in order to use it in summer. A businessman in Boston, Frederic Tudor, was responsible for harvesting ice and shipping it worldwide.

During that time, the method of ice cream consisted of a huge bowl that was placed in a tub containing salt and ice. This method was known as the pot-freezer method. Later on, French confectioners improved this method by making the ice cream inside a sorbetière, which was a covered bucket or pail that had a handle fixed on its lid. This pot-freezer method works by reducing the ingredients’ temperature by the use of salt and crushed ice mixed together. The ice cools down the salty water and the salt’s action on this ice causes the ice to melt partially as it absorbs the latent heat and brings this mixture below pure water’s freezing point. Also, the container that was immersed makes a greater thermal contact when it comes to the mixture of salt and ice as compare to using only ice.

In addition, the hand-cranked lever was added replacing the pot-freezer method. The hand-cranked churn also uses salt and ice for cooling. Its origin is unknown; however, its patent was issued to a woman named Nancy Johnson in 1843. The hand-cranked churn made an ice cream that was much smoother as compared to the pot-freezer method. Plus, this method was also quicker. Numerous inventors made improvements on the current design.

In early America and Europe, it was small businesses that mostly produced and sold ice cream, such as caterers and confectioners. It was Jacob Fussell, from Baltimore, Maryland, who started producing ice creams on a much larger scale. He would purchase fresh dairy items from the York County’s farmers in Pennsylvania and would sell them where he lived. Due to unstable demands for his items, he would often have an abundance of cream left, which he would then make into a lot of ice cream. It was in Seven Valleys, Pennsylvania during the year 1851, when his first factory of ice cream was built. After two years, his factory was moved to Baltimore. Soon enough, his factories were built in other cities. He also taught this business to other people, who worked on their personal plants. Due to mass production, the cost of ice cream reduced; hence, ice cream became popular among people.

Moreover, Carl von Linde, who was a Germen engineer, was responsible for the progress of industrial refrigeration. Hence, due to this progress, the act of cutting up and storing natural ice got eliminated in the 1870s. Plus, in 1926, further improvement of the continuous-progress freezer was seen and this resulted in ice cream’s mass production. This was when the modernization in the industry of ice cream was on its way.

During the modern times, ice cream was made at home by using the commonly used method, the ice cream maker. This was an electrical appliance that churned the ice cream mixture as it was cooled in the household freezer. Certain pricier versions consist of a built-in freezing feature. In another method, liquid nitrogen is added to the ice cream mixture as it is stirred with a spatula or spoon for a couple of seconds. In an almost similar method, dry ice was added to the ice cream mixture and it was stirred for a couple of minutes. Heston Blumenthal supported this method and claimed that it was an ideal method for every home cook. Certain ice cream recipes require cooking custard, then folding whipped cream in it, and freezing that mixture immediately. In another method, a pre-frozen water and salt solution is used, which melts gradually as it freezes the ice cream.

Borden’s Eagle Brand sweet condensed milk came up with a homemade ice cream recipe as well. The recipe stated that a mixture of cream, simple flavoring and the condensed milk can be poured in a single tray for ice cubes and placed in the freezer. It will take the recipe about four hours and it will be ready. Additional items can be added to this ice cream, such as chocolate, nuts, frozen or fresh fruits, and many more.

Another unorthodox method for preparing ice cream was introduced by the fighter pilots of America that were situated in South Pacific during WWII. They would attach several pairs of 5 Gallon (19 Liters) cans on their aircraft. These cans would be fitted to a tiny propeller. Then this would be spun by a slipstream and it drove the stirrer, which then would agitate the ice cream mixture as the extreme cold of the high altitude would freeze it. Additionally, the B-17 crews of Europe ended up using a similar technique and so did many others.

Retail Sales Of Ice cream

Ice cream is easily available worldwide

 in the developed areas due to it being mass produced. It is purchased in big cartons from grocery stores and supermarkets. It is bought in smaller or lesser quantities from milk bars, convenience stores, and ice cream shops. Plus, individual servings can be purchased from vans during public events or small carts. In 2015, the gallons of ice cream produced in the United States reached up to almost 900 million.

The Ice Cream Job

Nowadays, there are that jobs that specialize when it comes to selling ice cream. An individual who works by selling ice cream is known as the ice cream man. But, there are also women who specialized in selling ice cream. These ice cream sellers would often sell their ice cream on the beach, either by carrying a box filled with ice cream or by driving to the beach top and ringing a bell. The latter method consisted of people travelling to the top of a beach and directly buying an ice cream from the seller, who can often be seen in a van made for selling ice cream. Moreover, in Australia or Turkey, sometimes the ice cream sellers would sell their ice cream while traveling on small powerboats that contained chest freezers.

Additionally, there are ice cream sellers that work while traveling in a refrigerated cart or van known as an ice cream truck. At times these vehicles also consist of a speaker that plays folk melodies or children’s music. In these vehicles, the driver would travel through all the neighborhoods while stopping every now and then. These ice cream vans consist of large windows from where the ice cream man sells their ice cream to the customer. Moreover, in the U.K., ice cream vans create a specific music box type noise as compared to playing actual music.

Ingredients And Other Standard Definitions

There are certain regulations that many countries have to follow. These regulations maintain a control on what is described as an ice cream. For instance, the FDA in United States mentions that in order for a product to be defined as an ice cream must contain certain quantity of these ingredients:

  • Milkfat that is more than 10%.
  • 6-10% of non-fat milk and milk solids. They are also called serum solids and they contain the whey and caseins proteins, plus lactose which is a carbohydrate in milk.

The ice cream usually also contains:

  • 12-16% sweeteners that are usually in a mixture of glucose and sucrose-based sweeteners made from corn syrup. 
  • 0.2-0.5% emulsifiers and stabilizers.
  • 55%-64% water that is present in milk or the other ingredients.

All of the percentage of these compositions is by weight. Due to ice cream containing the volume of about half air, these numbers can be lowered by almost half if they are cited by the volume. These percentages by the weight seem to be more relevant when it comes to dietary considerations. Additionally, the low-fat ice cream products contain a lot of calories due to more sugar content, for example, a half cup of low-fat Ben & Jerry’s will have about 150 calories.

Furthermore, the Food and Drugs Act of Canada states that for them ice cream is divided into two versions: ice cream and ice cream mix. Both of these versions have their own list of regulations.

  • In an ice cream, there should be about 10% of milkfat and at least about 180 grams of milk solids per liter. If chocolate, cocoa, nuts, fruits, or other additional confections are included then the milkfat percentage can be 8%.
  • An ice cream mix contains a pasteurized mixture of milk, cream, and different other milk products, which haven’t been frozen yet. The mix might also contain chocolate syrup or cocoa, non-artificial or artificial flavors, eggs, food coloring, salt, a pH-level adjusting agent, a stabilizing agent under 0.5 percent of the mix, edible casein which is under 1 percent of the mix, a sequestering agent for food coloring preservation, propylene glycol mono fatty acids that is under 0.35 percent of the mix, and last but not least sorbitan tristearate that is under 0.035 percent of the ice cream mix. Moreover, the ice cream mix should not have less than 36 percent of solid components.

Physical Properties Of Ice cream

Ice cream is known as a colloidal system that comprises of ice cream crystals plus aggregates, which consists of air that isn’t mixed with ice cream since it creates tiny bubbles inside the bulk and the fat globules that are partially coalesced. Hence, the dispersed phase that is created from all of the tiny particles is enclosed in a continuous phase that is unfrozen and composed of proteins, sugars, polysaccharides, water, and salts. It is their interaction that determines the ice cream’s properties, whether it’s soft, whippy, or perhaps hard.

Safety Concerns Regarding Ice cream

Ice cream is considered a foam or a colloid, when thought about from a food chemistry perspective. There is an important role for the dietary emulsifier in an ice cream. Polysorbate and soy lecithin are commonly used as popular emulsifier when it comes to producing ice cream. Furthermore, a study with mice in 2015 showed that the use of two common dietary emulsifiers, polysorbate 80 and carboxymethylcellulose, resulted in inflammatory bowel sickness, weight gain, plus other metabolic conditions.

  • Ostwald Ripening

Ostwald ripening occurs when large crystals grow instead of small ones during the dispersion phase in a process known as migratory recrystallization. This is when sharp crystals are formed. Certain theories about this process mention that after some time, this recrystallization process is described by this equation:

r = r (0) + Rt exp(1/n)

In this equation, the initial size is r (0). The recrystallization order is ‘n’, while the time constant ‘t’ is used for the recrystallization which is dependent on ‘R’ that is the rate, using units of size per time.  

In order to create a smooth ice cream, the recrystallization process needs to take place in an extremely slow manner. This is because tiny crystals create the smooth factor, which means that the ‘r’ needs to decrease.

Ice creams From All Around The World

Every culture from all over the world has their own unique version of an ice cream, according to the preference and taste of their local people. For instance, the Argentinian ice cream ‘helado’ has a lot of similarity with the Italian ‘gelato’. This is because of the historical influences that the Italian immigrants had on Argentinian customs.

People of New Zealand and Australia are some of the leading consumers of ice cream across the globe; eating 20 liters and 18 liters each in a year respectively. However, they are still behind the people of United States, where people consume 23 liters of ice cream in a year.

Moreover, in China, other than the well-known flavors like chocolate, vanilla, mango, strawberry, and coffee, numerous Chinese manufacturers of ice cream have introduced various other flavors that are traditional Chinese flavors, such as red bean and black sesame.

It was 1651, when an Italian man named Francesco dei Coltelli started a café for ice cream in Paris; it gained a massive amount of popularity in Paris. Hence, this resulted in the opening of 250 more cafés over the span of 50 years in Paris.

In Greece, their version of ice cream was called ‘pagotó’ and it was presented at the start of the twentieth century. Moving on to India, they are known to be among the biggest ice cream producers in the entire world. However, majority of their ice cream is eaten domestically. Furthermore, in Indonesia, their version of a traditional ice cream is known as ‘es puter’, which is known as stirred ice cream in English. It’s made from sugar, coconut milk, and pandanus leaves, with additional flavors like jackfruit, avocado, palm sugar, durian, red bean, mung bean, and chocolate.

Moving on to Iran, their version of ice cream is called fālūde or pālūde. It’s a Persian sorbet that is made from slim vermicelli noodles that are frozen using rose water and sugar syrup. Often times, this dessert is served with either ground pistachios or lime juice.

When it comes to Italy, their version of ice cream is known as gelato, which is quite popular in that region. Majority of their production is hand-made and it is flavored by every individual shop that are known as ‘produzione propria’ gelaterias. The gelato contains sugar, whole milk, natural flavors, and at times eggs. Plus, gelato has less amount of fat as compared to a regular ice cream, where gelato contains about 8 percent and regular ice cream has minimum of 10 percent fat.

Moreover, in Philippine, their version of ice cream is called Sorbetes. People can get them from peddlers who are roaming the streets with carts filled with the ice cream. Despite having similar names, sorbetes is not another version of sorbet.

In Spain, their ice cream at often times is similar to the Italian gelato style. It is available in various cafés and special ice cream stores. Besides the regular ice cream flavors, cafés also sell other unique flavors, such as crema catalana, tiramisu, or nata. Furthermore, in Turkey, their ice cream is called Dondurma. It is usually made from sugar, milk, mastic, and salep.

In the U.K., fourteen million adults purchase ice cream as their treat. According to a specific report that was produced in the month of September 2009, their ice cream market is worth £1.3 billion.

Moving on to the United States, their ice cream is made with sugar, cream, and a fruit or non-fruit flavoring. At times it is called Philadelphia style ice cream. Moreover, the ice cream that requires using eggs to make custard is at times referred to as French ice cream. According to the federal labeling standards of America, their ice cream should have at least 10% milkfat. For every individual, Americans are known to eat ice cream that is almost 23 liters per year. This is the most quantity in the whole world.

Introduction Of The Ice cream Cone

In 1888, it was ‘Mrs A.B.Marshall’s Cookery Book’ that first introduced serving ice cream inside cones, even though this idea preexisted before. Agnes Marshall was a well-known cookery writer during her time and helped in popularizing ice cream. She manufactured and patented a device for making ice cream. Moreover, she was the first one who suggested the use of liquefied gases in order to freeze ice cream once she saw a demonstration during her visit to the Royal Institution.

Furthermore, authentic evidence is the proof that it was the nineteenth century when an ice cream cone was first served. Additionally, the cones gained popularity at the World’s Fair that was held in St. Louis in the year 1904. It is said that during the fair the ice cream vendor was out of serving cardboard dishes. Next to that vendor was a Syrian’s waffle booth that was not seeing any success due to heat. Hence, he offered his help to the ice cream vendor by rolling his waffles into cones. This new item soon became popular and other vendors started copying this method.

Other Similar Frozen Desserts


Listed below is the incomplete list of frozen ice cream snacks and desserts since more items can be added as time goes on and the ice cream world progresses.

  • Ais kacang is a Malaysian and Singaporean dessert made with shaved ice, sweet syrup, and red beans that are boiled. Evaporated milk is poured on the top. At times, other additional ingredients are added as well, like durians and raspberries.
  • Booza is a sticky and elastic ice cream that is greatly melt-resistant.
  • Dondurma is a Turkish ice cream that is made from salep and also mastic resin.
  • Frozen custard contains about 1.4 percent egg yolk, about 10 percent milkfat, and less quantity of air beaten in it. It is just like Gelato and is fairly rare. In Italy, it is known as Semifreddo.
  • Frozen yogurt uses yogurt in the place of cream or milk. It contains less amount of fat and has a bit of a tart flavor.
  • Gelato is the frozen dessert of Italy. It has less milkfat content as compared to ice cream.
  • Halo-halo is a well-known Filipino dessert, which is a combination of milk and shaved ice. Various fruits and boiled sweet beans are added to it and it is served cold inside a bowl or tall glass.
  • An ice cream sandwich consists of an ice cream bar that is sandwiched between two cookies, soft biscuits, or even cake.
  • Ice milk has a lesser quantity of sweetening content and lower than 10 percent milkfat. It was previously called ice milk, but nowadays in the U.S. it is known as low-fat ice cream.
  • Ice lolly or ice pop consists of frozen fruit juice, fruit puree, or flavored sugar water that is served either inside a bendable plastic sleeve or on a stick.
  • Qulfi or Kulfi came during the Mughal India times from the Indian subcontinent.
  • Maple toffee or maple taffy is a well-known treat that is eaten in the maple-growing areas. When making this toffee, maple syrup is boiled into its concentrated state and is poured on fresh snow where it thickens into a toffee-like material. It is eaten by using a wooden stick and picking up the thickened toffee from the fresh snow.
  • Mellorine is non-dairy and uses vegetable fat instead of milkfat.
  • Parevine is a non-dairy and Kosher frozen dessert that was established in New York during the year of 1969.
  • Patbingsu is a well-known shaved ice treat from Korea. It is usually served with additional sweet toppings like fruits, sweetened condensed milk, or red beans.
  • Pop-up ice cream that comes in various flavors.
  • Sherbet contains 1 to 2 percent milkfat and it is sweeter as compared to ice cream.
  • Sorbet is pure fruit puree that has no dairy in it.
  • Snow cones consist of crushed ice balls onto which flavored syrup is poured. It is served inside a cone made from paper and is eaten in various countries. In the United States, snow cones are commonly found in amusement parks.


It was 2006, when certain well-known ice cream makers started using liquid nitrogen when it came to freezing their ice cream. This eliminated the requirement of a standard freezer to freeze ice cream. Once prepared, a pillar of white cloud of condensed water vapor is seen. At first, the ice cream is dangerous and should not be eaten when the liquid nitrogen is still flowing through it. The liquid nitrogen need to be vaporized completely before any consumption. At times, the frozen ice cream is stuck on the container’s side and needs to be thawed. Moreover, great result is still achievable with the use of dry ice that is easily available. Authors, like Heston Blumenthal, mentioned in his recipes a method of making ice cream or sorbet by a normal blender. Another vendor known as Creamistry, creates their ice cream by using liquid ingredients while their customers watch. That ice cream has a much softer texture as compared to regular ice cream. This is due to the ice crystals getting less amount of time in order to form.

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